You can see it yourself that there is no universal answer to this. One has to create what he or she has passion for. If I were some kind of a local boss, I would think of a modern way to tell people stories of the place they live in. Know and Love Your Motherland kind of posters and trending reconstructions of squares and parks with installation of wooden benches are not enough, though also important.
I will give an example. A year and a half ago I was giving lectures in California, in the city of Monterey. It is, of course, a much easier place to engage in local identity development: there is the ocean, seals lying along the shores, perfect weather all year round. I mean, the area is like a paradise. It is much more difficult to do the same in Perm. However, when you take a stroll in Monterey you keep encountering certain special details, which are not exactly monuments, but something else. You sit down on a bench and see a sign on it reading: "Here, Mr. Hewlett, the founder of Hewlett-Packard, loved to sit and watch the ocean. He fell in love with this view so much that he invested a lot of money and built a wonderful aquarium, which you can find a kilometre away from here. It has numerous unique marine animals." There is a Chinese diver monument, because, in the 20s, a huge Chinese colony lived here, who were all divers and ship repairmen. Without them, the Monterey port would not have become as great. Here is a drawing of some dudes on a wall. Who are they? These are characters of the Steinbeck's Cannery Row, and we, in fact, are on the Cannery Row Street. This was the home to a cannery where they processed fish, everything smelled of horse mackerel. The place was impossible to stay at, but it was the canned fish capital of America. There is the former location of the old oak, the sacred tree of the Indians, under which the Spanish navigators came up with the name Monterey. Almost every meter of the city is covered in such landmarks. There are no guides swarming around you; there is no state program for encouraging patriotism. It all works by itself. You walk through the city, and the city tells you stories of itself, making the journey interesting, creating a certain perspective. You begin to understand that it is not just houses, trees and cute seals, but there is something more hidden behind. And this is California, dating back to some 300 years ago. Why can't we do the same?
When I say "we" I certainly do not mean St. Petersburg. In St. Petersburg, everything is perfectly fine with local identity, local pride and awareness of the stories behind each stone. This awareness is transmitted by itself, without much effort on behalf of the state. However, it is quite different when you visit other cities. This, of course, may be explained by the upheavals of the XX century, when the history of a place could be erased together with its residents for several times. But this is past, and we have to live here in the present. Patriotism does not mean sitting and watching Vladimir Solovyov on TV, imagining our triumph over the United States. Patriotism is understanding the soul of the place you live in, knowing what stories, myths, and human fates it draws upon and how you can tell these stories.